Renewable Energy Wildlife Research Fund Research Projects

The Research Fund supports priority research projects that expand the understanding of the challenges and the potential solutions for solar/wind-wildlife interactions.


All project study designs and results undergo independent expert review and are published as peer-reviewed journal articles or as REWI technical reports.


Wind-Focused Research Projects

Enhancing Understanding of Bat and Bird Activities and Fatality Risk at Wind Facilities

Validating a Bat Fatality Detection System: This project is a proof-of-concept study to test and validate a camera technology that is designed to detect when bat fatalities occur, thus providing details on the exact conditions for improving risk assessments and minimization strategies. If effective, this system could be deployed by individual facilities for informing site-specific smart-curtailment.

Insect Feeding as a Driver of Risk: In the pursuit of minimization tools to reduce wind/wildlife impacts, this study aims to conduct literature reviews to better understand insect feeding as a risk factor by 1) reviewing broadly what is known about insectivorous bat diets using existing literature with focus to evaluate bat foraging near wind turbines; and 2) evaluating if existing crop-pest insect emergence models predict temporal and spatial patterns of bat fatalities.

Understanding Differences between Collision Risk of Male and Female Bats of Different Species to Inform Minimization Strategies: Evaluate ratios of male vs. female bat fatalities at operating wind farms through genetics-based sex determination to understand when and where males and females of seven North American bat species experience peak collision risk.

Evaluating the Effect of Turbine Size on Bird and Bat Mortality: Analyze the effect of turbine height and rotor diameter on bird and bat fatality rates using data contributed to the American Wind Wildlife Information Center (AWWIC) to assess whether bird and bat fatality risk increases with turbine size.

Completed (B-05) – Relationship between Bat Acoustic Activity and Collision Fatalities: Pair pre-construction bat acoustic activity surveys with publicly available fatality estimates from the same wind facilities to evaluate the ability of pre-construction acoustic activity to predict bat collision risk. View 2019 journal publication.

Completed (B-06) – Landscape Factors Associated with Fatalities of Migratory Tree-Roosting Bats at Wind Energy Facilities: Evaluate American Wind Wildlife Information Center (AWWIC) fatality data to further assess the relationship between landscape-level attributes and variation in fatalities of hoary bat and other tree bat species among wind energy facilities. View 2019 report.

Completed/study design not fully funded (B-17) – Investigating the Effect of Insects on Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines: Develop the first phase of a project – a detailed study design – to evaluate whether UV light will attract insects away from the rotor swept area of wind turbines and reduce bat activity and collision risk.

Refining Smart Curtailment Practices for Bats

Reassessing Bat Collision Risk using Acoustic Exposure: Use acoustic data to quantify the meteorological, seasonal, and temporal conditions under which different bat species are active to develop a quantitative framework for predicting and managing periods of increased risk exposure.

Using the Passage of Weather Fronts to Predict Hoary Bat Mortality: Assess the relationship between the passage of weather fronts and hoary bats collisions at operating wind farms to develop a tool that predicts periods of increased collision risk based on real-time regional weather data.

Assessing the Efficacy of Detection and Active Response Curtailment (DARC) Technology: Test the efficacy of the Detection and Active Response Curtailment (DARC) technology – developed to integrate with turbine control systems and use real-time data on bat presences and wind speed to execute curtailment commands – at an operational wind facility. This project is collaboratively funded with the DOE. Final DOE report pending.

Completed (B-01) – Using Local and Regional Weather Data to Improve Smart Curtailment Strategies for Bats: Scope the feasibility of using bat fatality models developed with machine learning technology and regional weather data to provide targeted, proactive turbine curtailments, resulting in reduced bat fatalities and reduced production losses. View REWI technical report.

Completed (B-03) – Comparing the Effectiveness of Curtailment Strategies in Reducing Bat Fatalities: Compile data from post construction monitoring studies contributed to the American Wind Wildlife Information Center (AWWIC) to evaluate species-specific variation in bat fatalities among different curtailment regimes. View 2021 journal publication.

Refining Eagle Fatality Estimates and Informed Curtailment

Using Machine Learning to Model Eagle Behavior and Improve Turbine Curtailment Strategies: Develop turbine-specific algorithms that incorporate eagle flight behavior recorded by camera-based detection systems into curtailment decisions to improve curtailment algorithms for these systems and ultimately reduce eagle collision risk. View 2021 journal publication. View 2022 journal publication. Third publication in journal peer-review process.

Incorporating Incidental Eagle Carcass Detection to Improve Eagle Take Estimates: Evaluate methods of incorporating incidental carcass detections by wind facility operations staff into the overall estimated probability of detection at an operating wind facility to provide a methodology for operators to more accurately estimate eagle take. Publication is in peer-review process.

Improving Adjustments for Raptor Carcass Persistence: Analyze regional variation in the persistence of game bird versus raptor carcasses used in carcass persistence trials to produce more accurate estimates of fatalities of eagles and other raptors. View 2023 journal publication.

Evaluating Habitat-Based Impacts for Grouse

Lek Persistence of Lesser Prairie-Chicken in Vicinity of Wind Energy Infrastructure: Building on the Fund’s “Wind Energy Impact on Lesser Prairie-Chicken” project, this study further investigates the presence of leks near a wind facility in southwestern Missouri to further evaluate the potential effects on the LEPC population and if siting measures can be improved. At the conclusion of this study, there will be 8-years of long-term monitoring of lesser prairie-chicken within the vicinity of wind energy infrastructure.

Assessing Lesser Prairie-Chicken Response to a Wind Energy Development: A study investigating the potential effects of wind facilities on the lesser prairie-chicken over a 5-year period to provide data previously lacking to inform siting decisions within lesser prairie-chicken habitat. View 2019 REWI technical report. Publication in journal peer-review process.


Solar-Focused Research Projects

Wildlife Abundance and Use of Utility-Scale Solar Facilities in Agricultural Environments (Study Design): The research team is developing a study design for a prospective project to better understand the effects of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) solar energy development on bird communities in the midwestern United States. The Fund will determine whether to move forward with the full study upon completion of the study design.

Soil Health Impacts of Solar PV Installation and Agri-Voltaic Practice on Agricultural Land: The conversion of agricultural land into utility-scale PV solar energy facilities has raised important questions about its ecological effects. This study investigates the effects of this land conversion and on-site vegetation management practices on soil health and ecosystem function.

Greater Sage-Grouse Use of a Solar Energy Facility in Southwest Wyoming: Development of PV solar energy facilities in greater sage-grouse habitat presents uncertainty for developers and wildlife managers as sage-grouse responses to PV solar facilities are largely unknown. The study provides a unique opportunity to further examine how sage-grouse use a landscape containing solar facilities.